Strategies

Introduction

Strategies are a way of defining how a route callable is dispatched. A strategy defines what to do if a route is matched, if no route is found and what to do in certain error conditions.

Route provides two strategies out of the box, one aimed at standard web apps and one aimed at JSON APIs.

  • League\Route\Strategy\ApplicationStrategy (Default)
  • League\Route\Strategy\JsonStrategy (Requires a HTTP Response Factory)

Applying Strategies

Strategies can be applied in three ways, each takes precedence over the previous.

Globally

Will apply to all routes defined by the router unless the route or its parent group has a different strategy applied.

<?php declare(strict_types=1);

use League\Route\Strategy\ApplicationStrategy;

$router = new League\Route\Router;
$router->setStrategy(new ApplicationStrategy);

Per Group

Applying a strategy to a group will apply it to all routes defined within that group as well as any errors that occur when a request is within the group prefix. In these cases, any globally applied strategy will be ignored.

<?php declare(strict_types=1);

use League\Route\Strategy\ApplicationStrategy;

$router = new League\Route\Router;

$router
    ->group('/group', function ($router) {
        $router->map('GET', '/acme/route', 'Acme\Controller::action');
        $router->put('/acme/route', 'Acme\Controller::action');
    })
    ->setStrategy(new ApplicationStrategy)
;

Per Route

A strategy can be applied to any specific route, at top level or within a group, this will take precedence over any strategy applied to its parent group or globally.

<?php declare(strict_types=1);

use Acme\CustomStrategy;
use League\Route\Strategy\ApplicationStrategy;

$router = new League\Route\Router;

$router->map('GET', '/acme/route', 'Acme\Controller::action')->setStrategy(new CustomStrategy);

$router
    ->group('/group', function ($router) {
        $router
            ->map('GET', '/acme/route', 'Acme\Controller::action')
            ->setStrategy(new CustomStrategy) // will ignore the strategy applied to the group
        ;
    })
    ->setStrategy(new ApplicationStrategy)
;

Application Strategy

League\Route\Strategy\ApplicationStrategy is used by default, it provides the controller with a PSR-7 Psr\Http\Message\ServerRequestInterface implementation and any route arguments. It expects your controller to build and return an implementation of Psr\Http\Message\ResponseInterface.

Controller Signature

<?php declare(strict_types=1);

use Psr\Http\Message\ResponseInterface;
use Psr\Http\Message\ServerRequestInterface;
use Zend\Diactoros\Response;

function controller(ServerRequestInterface $request, array $args) : ResponseInterface {
    // ...
    $response = new Response;
    $response->getBody()->write(/* $content */);
    return $response->withStatus(200);
});

Exception Decorators

The applkication strategy simply allows any exceptions to bubble out, you can catch them in your bootstrap process or you have the option to extend this strategy and overload the exception decorator methods. See Custom Strategies.

JSON Strategy

League\Route\Strategy\JsonStrategy aims to make building JSON APIs a little easier. It provides a PSR-7 Psr\Http\Message\ServerRequestInterface implementation and any route arguments to the controller as with the application strategy, the difference being that you can either build and return a response yourself or return an array and a JSON response will be built for you.

To make use of the JSON strategy, you will need to provide it with a PSR-17 response factory implementation. Some examples of HTTP Factory packages can be found here. We will use the zend-diactoros factory as an example.

<?php declare(strict_types=1);

$responseFactory = Http\Factory\Diactoros\ResponseFactory;
$strategy = new League\Route\Strategy\JsonStrategy($responseFactory);

$router = (new League\Route\Router)->setStrategy($strategy);

Controller Signature

<?php declare(strict_types=1);

use Psr\Http\Message\ResponseInterface;
use Psr\Http\Message\ServerRequestInterface;
use Zend\Diactoros\Response;

function responseController(ServerRequestInterface $request, array $args) : ResponseInterface {
    // ...
    $response = new Response;
    $response->getBody()->write(json_encode(/* $content */));
    return $response->withAddedHeader('content-type', 'application/json')->withStatus(200);
});

function arrayController(ServerRequestInterface $request, array $args) : array {
    // ...
    return [
        // ...
    ];
});

Exception Decorators

League\Route\Strategy\JsonStrategy will decorate all exceptions, NotFound, MethodNotAllowed, and any 4xx or 5xx exceptions as a JSON Response, setting the correct HTTP status code and content type header in the process.

{
    "status_code": 404,
    "message": "Not Found"
}

HTTP 4xx Exceptions

In a RESTful API, covering all outcomes and returning the correct 4xx response can become quite verbose. Therefore, the dispatcher provides a convenient way to ensure you can return the correct response without the need for a conditional being created for every outcome.

Simply throw one of the HTTP exceptions from within your application layer and the strategy will catch the exception and build the appropriate response.

<?php declare(strict_types=1);

use League\Route\Http\Exception\BadRequestException;
use Psr\Http\Message\ResponseInterface;
use Psr\Http\Message\ServerRequestInterface;

$router = new League\Route\Router;

$router->post('/acme', function (ServerRequestInterface $request) : ResponseInterface {
    throw new BadRequestException;
});
Available HTTP Exceptions
Status Code Exception Description
400 League\Route\Http\Exception\BadRequestException The request cannot be fulfilled due to bad syntax.
401 League\Route\Http\Exception\UnauthorizedException Similar to 403 Forbidden, but specifically for use when authentication is required and has failed or has not yet been provided.
403 League\Route\Http\Exception\ForbiddenException The request was a valid request, but the server is refusing to respond to it.
404 League\Route\Http\Exception\NotFoundException The requested resource could not be found but may be available again in the future.
405 League\Route\Http\Exception\MethodNotAllowedException A request was made of a resource using a request method not supported by that resource; for example, using GET on a form which requires data to be presented via POST, or using PUT on a read-only resource.
406 League\Route\Http\Exception\NotAcceptableException The requested resource is only capable of generating content not acceptable according to the Accept headers sent in the request.
409 League\Route\Http\Exception\ConflictException Indicates that the request could not be processed because of conflict in the request, such as an edit conflict in the case of multiple updates.
410 League\Route\Http\Exception\GoneException Indicates that the resource requested is no longer available and will not be available again.
411 League\Route\Http\Exception\LengthRequiredException The request did not specify the length of its content, which is required by the requested resource.
412 League\Route\Http\Exception\PreconditionFailedException The server does not meet one of the preconditions that the requester put on the request.
415 League\Route\Http\Exception\UnsupportedMediaException The request entity has a media type which the server or resource does not support.
417 League\Route\Http\Exception\ExpectationFailedException The server cannot meet the requirements of the Expect request-header field.
418 League\Route\Http\Exception\ImATeapotException I’m a teapot.
428 League\Route\Http\Exception\PreconditionRequiredException The origin server requires the request to be conditional.
429 League\Route\Http\Exception\TooManyRequestsException The user has sent too many requests in a given amount of time.
451 League\Route\Http\Exception\UnavailableForLegalReasonsException The resource is unavailable for legal reasons.

Custom Strategies

You can build your own custom strategy to use in your application as long as it is an implementation of League\Route\Strategy\StrategyInterface. A strategy is tasked with:

  1. Providing a middleware that invokes your controller then decorates and returns your controllers response.
  2. Providing a middleware that will decorate a 404 NotFoundException and return a response.
  3. Providing a middleware that will decorate a 405 MethodNotAllowedException and return a response.
  4. Providing a middleware that will decorate any other exception and return a response.
<?php

namespace League\Route\Strategy;

use Exception;
use League\Route\Http\Exception\{MethodNotAllowedException, NotFoundException};
use League\Route\Route;
use Psr\Http\Message\{ResponseInterface, ServerRequestInterface};
use Psr\Http\Server\MiddlewareInterface;

interface StrategyInterface
{
    /**
     * Invoke the route callable based on the strategy.
     *
     * @param \League\Route\Route                      $route
     * @param \Psr\Http\Message\ServerRequestInterface $request
     *
     * @return \Psr\Http\Message\ResponseInterface
     */
    public function invokeRouteCallable(Route $route, ServerRequestInterface $request) : ResponseInterface;

    /**
     * Get a middleware that will decorate a NotFoundException
     *
     * @param \League\Route\Http\Exception\NotFoundException $exception
     *
     * @return \Psr\Http\Server\MiddlewareInterface
     */
    public function getNotFoundDecorator(NotFoundException $exception) : MiddlewareInterface;

    /**
     * Get a middleware that will decorate a NotAllowedException
     *
     * @param \League\Route\Http\Exception\NotFoundException $exception
     *
     * @return \Psr\Http\Server\MiddlewareInterface
     */
    public function getMethodNotAllowedDecorator(MethodNotAllowedException $exception) : MiddlewareInterface;

    /**
     * Get a middleware that acts as an exception handler, it should wrap the rest of the
     * middleware stack and catch eny exceptions.
     *
     * @return \Psr\Http\Server\MiddlewareInterface
     */
    public function getExceptionHandler() : MiddlewareInterface;
}

The best way to learn how to create a custom strategy is to look at the strategies that Route provides by default, they can be found here.