Middleware

Introduction

A middleware component is an individual component participating, often together with other middleware components, in the processing of an incoming request and the creation of a resulting response, as defined by PSR-7.

A middleware component MAY create and return a response without delegating to a request handler, if sufficient conditions are met.

Route is a PSR-15 server request handler, and as such can handle the invokation of a stack of middlewares.

Example Middleware

A good example of middleware is using one to determine user auth.

<?php declare(strict_types=1);

namespace Acme;

use Psr\Http\Message\ResponseInterface;
use Psr\Http\Message\ServerRequestInterface;
use Psr\Http\Server\MiddlewareInterface;
use Psr\Http\Server\RequestHandlerInterface;
use Zend\Diactoros\Response\RedirectResponse;

class AuthMiddleware implements MiddlewareInterface
{
    /**
     * {@inheritdoc}
     */
    public function process(ServerRequestInterface $request, RequestHandlerInterface $handler) : ResponseInterface
    {
        // determine authentication and/or authorization
        // ...

        // if user has auth, use the request handler to continue to the next
        // middleware and ultimately reach your route callable
        if ($auth === true) {
            return $handler->handle($request);
        }

        // if user does not have auth, possibly return a redirect response,
        // this will not continue to any further middleware and will never
        // reach your route callable
        return new RedirectResponse(/* .. */);
    }
}

Defining Middleware

Middleware can be defined to run in 3 ways:

  1. On the router - will run for every matched route.
  2. On a route group - will run for any matched route in that group.
  3. On a specific route - will run only when that route is matched.

Using the example middleware above, we can lock down the entire application by adding the middleware to the router.

<?php declare(strict_types=1);

$router = new League\Route\Router;
$router->middleware(new Acme\AuthMiddleware);

// ... add routes

If we only want to lock down a group, such as an admin area, we can just add the middleware to the group.

<?php declare(strict_types=1);

$router = new League\Route\Router;

$router
    ->group('/admin', function ($router) {
        // ... add routes
    })
    ->middle(new Acme\AuthMiddleware)
;

Or finally, we can lock down a specific route by only adding the middleware to that route.

<?php declare(strict_types=1);

$router = new League\Route\Router;

$router
    ->map('GET', '/private', 'Acme\SomeController::someMethod')
    ->middleware(new Acme\AuthMiddleware)
;

Middleware Order

Middleware is invoked in a specific order but depending on the logic contained in a middleware, you can control whether your code is run before or after your controller is invoked.

The invokation order is as follows:

  1. Exception handler defined by the active strategy. This middleware should wrap the rest of the application and catch any exceptions to be gracefully handled.
  2. Middleware added to the router.
  3. Middleware added to a matched route group.
  4. Middleware added to a specific matched route.

To control whether your logic runs before or after your controller, you can have the request handler run as the first thing you do in your middleware, it will return a response, you can then do whatever you need to with the response and return it.

<?php declare(strict_types=1);

namespace Acme;

use Psr\Http\Message\ResponseInterface;
use Psr\Http\Message\ServerRequestInterface;
use Psr\Http\Server\MiddlewareInterface;
use Psr\Http\Server\RequestHandlerInterface;

class SomeMiddleware implements MiddlewareInterface
{
    /**
     * {@inheritdoc}
     */
    public function process(ServerRequestInterface $request, RequestHandlerInterface $handler) : ResponseInterface
    {
        // invoke the rest of the middleware stack and your controller resulting
        // in a returned response object
        $response = $handler->handle($request);

        // ...
        // do something with the response
        return $response;
    }
}